Wednesday, June 20, 2012





OBESITY OILS AND N0N OBESITY OILS
17 June 2012
Dr Daniel Mfonfu
Independent Researcher
Bamenda – Cameroon
Tel: +237 77601207
Email: dmfonfu@yahoo.com
Website: www.mfonfudaniel.blogspot.com

INTRODUCTION
Obesity oils contain large quantity of poly unsaturated and very long carbon chains of fatty acids as defined in my study ‘soya bean and soya bean oil contribute to obesity pandemic’ (Dr Daniel Mfonfu: www.mfonfudaniel.blogspot.com).
Non-obesity oils contain saturated, mono saturated fatty acids made up of short, medium, and long carbon chains fatty acids as described in the previous study mentioned above.
As a follow up to the study on ‘Soya bean and soya bean oil contribute to the obesity pandemic’ I thought it necessary and was motivated to make some detailed explanation and precision on edible oils in order to facilitate the education and the comprehension of edible oils by humanity.

GOAL
Promote the consumption of non-obesity oils in order to prevent obesity.

OBJECTIVES
List the obesity oils
List the recommended non-obesity oils
Show the graphical presentations of obesity and non-obesity oils

METHOD
List the obesity oils and the non-obesity oils obtained from the initial study ‘Soya bean and soya bean oil contribute to the obesity pandemic’ Graphs are drawn from the excel table in the initial study to show the saturation content and the length of the carbon chain of the fatty acids in the various oils.

RESULTS
The obesity oils are: 1) Cotton seed oil, 2) Grape seed oil, 3) Flaxseed oil, 4) Canola oil, 5) Corn oil (maize), 6) Peanut oil, 7) Safflower oil, 8) Sesame oil, 9) Soya bean oil, 10) Sunflower oil, 11) Fish oil, and 12) Walnut oil.
The recommended edible vegetable non-obesity oil are: 1) Coconut oil, 2) Olive oil, 3) Palm oil, 4) Cocoa Butter, 5) Palm olein (bleached palm oil), and 6) Almond oil.
The graphs of the oils are presented below.






Saturday, May 19, 2012





SOYA BEAN AND SOYA BEAN OIL CONTRIBUTE TO THE OBESITY PANDEMIC

SATURDAY 19 MAY 2012

Dr Daniel MFONFU

Independent Researcher

Bamenda - Cameroon

Email address: dmfonfu@yahoo.com

Web site: www.mfonfudaniel.blogspot.com

Tel: (+237)77601207


1. INTRODUCTION

I. Biblical prophecy on obesity

‘Daniel made up his mind not to let himself become ritually unclean by eating the food and drinking the wine of the royal court, so he asked Ashpenaz to help him, and God made Ashpenaz sympathetic to Daniel. Ashpenaz, however, was afraid of the king, so he said to Daniel, “The king has decided what you are to eat and drink, and if you don’t look as fit as the other the young men, he may kill me”

So Daniel went to the guard whom Ashpenaz had placed in charge of them and his three friends (Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah). “Give us vegetables to eat and water to drink. Then compare us with the young men who are eating the food of the royal court, and base your decision on how we look.”

He agreed to let them try it for ten days. When the time was up, they looked healthier and stronger than all those who had been eating the royal food. So from then on the guard let them continue to eat vegetables instead of what the king provided’ (Book of Daniel 9. 8 – 16, Good News Bible)

II. Declaration of obesity pandemic

‘Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally, with more than 1 billion adults overweight - at least 300 million of them clinically obese - and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability.’ (WHO 2003: Dr P. Puska, Dr C. Nishida, Mr D. Porter).

‘Around two-thirds of the population of England are overweight or obese. Obesity has grown by almost 400% in the last 25 years and on present trends will soon surpass smoking as the greatest cause of premature loss of life.’( House of Commons Health Committee 27 May 2004).

‘In the most recent NHANES Survey, the figure is closer to 12 to 14 percent. So, it is very clear that what we have is an increase in the number of children who are obese--who are overweight and obese. So we do have an epidemic, based on what we would expect to see, in terms of childhood obesity. We also have an epidemic of adult obesity. We should point out the highest rate of obesity among adults in our history, and the highest rate in any industrialized country, so we have a real problem with obesity.’ (David Satcher, M.D., Ph.D., US Assistant Secretary for Health and Surgeon General, Symposium Proceedings, October 27, 1998).

The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that overweight and obesity may soon replace more traditional public health concerns such as under nutrition and infectious diseases as the most significant cause of poor health. Obesity is a public health and policy problem because of its prevalence, costs, and health effects. (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia).

‘Obesity has been identified as an epidemic in the United States for more than two decades and yet the numbers of overweight and obese adults and children continue to grow. This disease burdens the health care system, strains economic resources, and has far-reaching social consequences. Currently, the rates of both overweight and obesity in the US are 61% in adults and 14% in children, respectively.’ (Nancy S Wellman, PhD, RD, FADA and Barbara Friedberg, Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr 2002).

‘Obesity in Scotland has reached epidemic proportions and its prevalence is increasing. The impact on physical and mental well-being is now recognised at a national level.’ (Management of Obesity, A national clinical guideline, February 2010, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, Part of NHS Quality Improvement Scotland).

III. Generic Definitions of obesity

Obesity is defined as a disease process characterised by excessive body fat accumulation with multiple organ-specific consequences. (Management of Obesity, A national clinical guideline, February 2010, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, Part of NHS Quality Improvement Scotland)

‘Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. Body mass index (BMI), a measurement which compares weight and height, defines people as: overweight (pre-obese) if their BMI is between 25 and 30 kg/m2; and obese when it is greater than 30 kg/m2. (Pic 2). BMI is calculated by dividing the subject's mass by the square of his or her height, typically expressed in metric units: = Body weight/Square of height. BMI = kilograms / meters2. Obesity in children and adolescents is defined as a BMI greater than the 95th percentile.’ (Wikipedia, Obesity)

‘Overweight and obesity is a result of positive energy balance over an extended period of time, where energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. While there are specific genetic disorders that give rise to overweight and obesity, recent epidemiological trends indicate that the rise in overweight and obesity is a result of environmental and behavioural changes.’ (August 2006, Government of South Australia, Department of health).

IV. Generic consequences of obesity on health

Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnoea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Obesity is one of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide. (Wikipedia, Obesity). Detailed generic consequences of obesity are presented in Annex I (Pic 3).

V. Generic causes of obesity

The key causes are increased consumption of energy-dense foods high in saturated fats and sugars, and reduced physical activity’ (WHO 2003: Dr P. Puska, Dr C. Nishida, Mr D. Porter).

‘At an individual level, a combination of excessive food energy intake and a lack of physical activity is thought to explain most cases of obesity. A limited number of cases are due primarily to genetics, medical reasons, or psychiatric illness. In contrast, increasing rates of obesity at a societal level are felt to be due to an easily accessible and palatable diet, increased reliance on cars, and mechanized manufacturing (Wikipedia, Obesity).

VI. Cholesterol

Cholesterol is exclusively found in animal fats: all food containing animal fats contains cholesterol (Pic 4). Major dietary sources of cholesterol include cheese, egg yolks, beef, pork, poultry, and shrimp. Human breast milk also contains significant quantities of cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol plays a smaller role in blood cholesterol levels in comparison to fat intake. Plant products (e.g. flax seeds, peanuts) contain healthy cholesterol-like compounds, phytosterols, which are suggested to help lower serum cholesterol. Cholesterol is a lipid found in the cell membranes and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. It is an essential component of mammalian cell membranes where it is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity. Hypercholesterolemia is a generic consequence of obesity. (Wikipedia, Fatty acids)

VII. Poultry

I have been rearing chickens at home for about 3 years. I feed the chickens with a mixture of crushed corn (maize), Soya bean and fish. The more I increase the quantity of Soya bean in the feed the quicker the chickens gain weight and are ready for consumption. Following the eating of large quantity of soya bean the chickens develop obesity. In many small scale home poultries similar chicken feeds are made using corn, soya been and fish.

The local chicken feed (Pic 5) produced industrially is composed of Concentrate 10% - 5kg, Soya bean 49% -7kg, Kernel cake 3.5kg, Wheat brown 5kg, Fish meal 1kg, Bone meal 1kg, Groundnut cake 3kg, and Corn meal 27kg. Soya bean is widely used in chicken feed in the world (Pic 6). There are many edible food items and oils in the community, and many of these are used in chicken feed (corn, cotton, wheat, barley, soya bean). Internationally, soya bean constitutes an important part of chicken feed. It therefore enters the food chain and is consumed by humans. Soya bean promotes obesity in chickens and it is a potential promoter of obesity in humans in the food chain.

VIII. Consumption of Soya bean oil

There is a heavy consumption of soya bean oil in Cameroon especially in urban areas because of the positive publicity given to it. The consumption of soya bean oil is also world wide. Soya bean milk and soya bean powder are also largely eaten. Palm oil, produced locally in large quantities in Cameroon, is only eaten with in special meals, because it is claimed to be saturated oil, the smoke produced during bleaching the palm oil dirties the walls of the kitchen and is choking. There is also a large, harmful and negative advertisement against palm oil.

IX. Operational research

An operational research is carried out to study the composition of soya bean and determine the role of soya bean oil in obesity. There is enormous published data in the internet on soya bean, soya bean oil, edible oils and obesity. The epidemiological approach in Annex II (Pic 7) was used in this study, whereby data was collected from results of studies relevant to the objective of my study and analysed in order to make well founded decisions vis-à-vis soya bean and obesity. The results of the relevant studies were downloaded from the internet. I was highly motivated by my experience in home poultry in which soya bean caused obesity in the chickens. This operational study involves a very intimate observation of patients with obesity and the behaviour of community vis-à-vis the consumption of soya bean oil, other soya bean products and obesity. It also entails the analysis of results of studies published on the oils eaten and a review of their metabolism. The contribution of the oils to obesity according to the objective of my study is assessed. This study will try to elucidate the most probable common underlying cause or contributing factor to obesity. The references of studies used are thoroughly documented. This operational research is an inspiration and vision given to me by the Almighty God to make a contribution to the fight against the obesity pandemic.

In order to have a deep insight of the problems of the community the physician during his consultation in his office should have a telescopic attitude that is through a patient with a disease in front of him he should investigate that health problem in the community, instead of just being contented with the patient in front of him, as John Snow did. Only the Almighty God will show us the John Snow’s ‘Broad Street pump for the obesity pandemic provided we would we do not scorn contributions from non familiar persons or sources.

The entire world is lamenting because of the obesity pandemic, but it is the Almighty God who will enlighten us to resolve this hideous health problem. We should therefore consider very seriously all proposals and options vis-à-vis the control of the obesity pandemic. This study will help us make realistic and objective decisions on one of contributing factors to obesity, the soya bean, and thus produce reasonable and practical guidelines for the control and prevention of the obesity pandemic.


2. GOAL:

Prevent the contribution of the largely consumed soya bean and soya bean oil to the obesity pandemic.


3. OBJECTIVES:

· Study the composition of Soya bean,

· State the edible oils and their composition in fatty acids

· Review the metabolism of fatty acids

· Analyse graphically the composition edible oils

· Recommend oils for consumption


4. METHOD

Data from results of studies on obesity, soya bean, edible oils, chicken feed and other relevant reports published in the internet are downloaded and analysed according to the objective of my study. My local home poultry inspired me to carry out this operational research because of the obesity observed in chickens as they ate soya bean. Graphical presentations are elaborated to show precisely the constitution of fatty acids of edible oils. The metabolism of edible oils in the body is scrutinized.


5. RESULTS

  1. COMPOSITION OF SOYA BEEN

Soya bean is composed mostly of soya bean oil that is made of fatty acids and amino acids as shown in Pic 8.

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF FATTY ACIDS

There are two methods of classifying fatty acids. The most familiar is based on saturation: saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The second method of classification is based on molecular size or length of the carbon chain in the fatty acid. There are four forms fatty acids: short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), and very long-chain fatty acids.

Three fatty acids joined together to make a triglyceride, so there are short-chain triglycerides (SCT), medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), long-chain triglycerides (LCT) or very long-chain triglycerides (VLCT).
The four forms of fatty acids in the body are (Pic 9):

Ø Short Chain Fatty Acids (Butyric and Caproic fatty acids, Acetic fatty acid);

Ø Medium Chain Fatty ( Caprylic, Capric, Lauric, Myristic fatty acids);

Ø Long Chain Fatty Acids (Myristic, Palmitic, Stearic, oleic fatty acids)

Ø Very Long Chain Fatty Acids - Lineolic fatty acid and Alpha Linolenic fatty acid will be considered as very long chain fatty acids because they are converted in the body into Omega 6 and Omega 3 respectively. (Ian Blair Hamilton & Cassandra Bond,Wikipedia)

Fatty acids may be saturated (C4 – C18), mono-unsaturated (C18.1), or polyunsaturated (Lineolic acid - Omega 6, C18.2, Alpha lineolic acid – Omega 3).

The reason fatty acids are classified based on their length is because the size of the carbon chain influences the chemical and physical properties of the fatty acid especially in the metabolism in the body.

  1. EDIBLE OILS:

The edible oils reviewed in this study are the following: Coconut oil, Palm kernel oil, Almond oil, Beef Tallow, Butter fat cow, Butter fat goat, Buterfat Human, Canola oil, Cocoa Butter, Cod liver oil, Corn oil (Maize), Cotton seed oil, Flaxseed oil, Grapeseed oil, Lard (Pork Fat), Olive oil, Palm oil, Palm olein, Peanut oil, Safflower oil, Sesame oil, Soya bean oil, Sunflower oil and Walnut oil from Ian Blair & Cassandra Bond, Pic 10. All fats and oils are composed of fat molecules called fatty acids. No fat or oil is only saturated or unsaturated. In the past four decades misinformation and disinformation provided by certain politically biased agricultural groups and repeated in professional and lay press have lead people to believe that all saturated fats are unhealthy (pic original Ian Blair). Little attention is focused on the fact that saturated fatty acids are not a single family of fats but comprise four subgroups of fatty acids; short- (C2-C6), medium- (C8-C12), long- (C14-C18.1) and very long chain (18.2 and above) fatty acids.

Fish oil is oil derived from the tissues of oily fish. Fish oils contain the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), precursors of certain eicosanoids that are known to reduce inflammation throughout the body, and are thought to have many health benefits. The omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil are thought to be beneficial in treating hypertriglyceridemia, and possibly beneficial in preventing heart disease. (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia). Fish oil is made up of very long chain fatty acids.

  1. METABOLISM OF FATS IN THE BODY

Short- and medium-chain fatty acids are absorbed directly into the blood via intestine capillaries and travel through the portal vein to the liver.

Long-chain fatty acids are not directly released into the intestinal capillaries. Instead they are absorbed into the fatty walls of the intestine villi and reassembled again into triglycerides. The triglycerides are coated with cholesterol and protein (protein coat) into a compound called a chylomicron.

Within the villi, the chylomicron enters a lymphatic capillary called a lacteal, which merges into larger lymphatic vessels. It is transported via the lymphatic system and the thoracic duct up to a location near the heart (where the arteries and veins are larger). The thoracic duct empties the chylomicrons into the bloodstream via the left sub-clavian vein. At this point the chylomicrons can transport the triglycerides to tissues where they are stored or metabolized for energy.

MCT passively diffuse from the GI tract to the portal system without requirement for modification like long-chain fatty acids or very-long-chain fatty acids. In addition, MCTs do not require bile salts for digestion. Patients that have malnutrition or malabsorption syndromes are treated with MCTs because they do not require energy for absorption, utilization, or storage. Long chain fatty acids (LCFA) and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) found in plant and animal fat are not easily absorbed by the GI tract and require pancreatic enzymes and bile salts to break them down so that they can be absorbed by the intestine. Next, the long chain fatty acids are packaged into chylomicrons, which are lipoproteins that transport lipids throughout the body. The lipoproteins are transported through the lymphatic system then circulate through the bloodstream, where they deliver fat components to a variety of tissues, including adipose, cardiac and skeletal tissue. After the lipoproteins have uploaded their triglyceride components to these tissues, the left over lipoproteins are transported to the liver, where they are imported into the mitochondria of liver cells, using the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) machinery, and are finally oxidized for energy use. This is how all saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and cholesterol that consists of long chain fatty acids and very long chain fatty acids is transported throughout the body (Rhotini Henderson).

Fatty acids undergo different metabolic fates depending on their chain length. The metabolic discrimination between varying fatty acids begins in the GI tract, with MCFA being absorbed more efficiently than long chain fatty acids (LFCA). Subsequently, MCFA are transported in the portal blood directly to the liver, unlike LCFA which are incorporated into chylomicrons and transported through lymph. These structures based differences continue through the processes of fat utilization; MCFA enter the mitochondria independently of the carnitine transport system and undergo preferential oxidation. In long term MCFA feeding in animals, weight accretion has been attenuated. These differences in metabolic handling of MCFA versus LCFA are considered with the conclusion that MCFA hold potential as weight loss agents. (Andrea A. Papamandjaris, Diane E. MacDougall, and Peter J.H. Jones)

There is also metabolic discrimination and preferential oxidation between the long chain fatty acids and the very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), the VLCFA will be metabolized last in the body thus it will be stored in the body as fats consequently promoting obesity.

MCFA are absorbed directly from the intestines into the portal vein and sent straight to the liver where they are, for the most part, burnt as fuel much like a carbohydrate. In this respect they act more like carbohydrates than like fats

Ordinarily MCFA are not stored to any significant degree as body fat. Medium-chain fatty acids produce energy. Other dietary fats produce body fat and thus obesity.

Scientific studies have also shown that ingestion of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) also increase the burning of long chain fatty acids that are already in your body. Similar to the scientific animal studies, medium-chain fatty acids also increase production of energy by increasing thermogenesis, which speeds up metabolism in humans as well. In another study, people with high blood triglyceride levels were given medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) for 8 weeks. In addition to decreasing overall body fat, their triglyceride levels plummeted by 14.5%. (Rhotini Henderson).

Carbohydrates are a superior short-term fuel for organisms because they are simpler to metabolize than fats or those amino acid portions of proteins that are used for fuel.

Depending on their chain length of fatty acids there is preferential and discriminatory metabolism between the fatty acids with the metabolism beginning chronologically with the SCFA then the MCFA, then the LCFA and finally the VLCFA. With the regular meals eaten daily the body uses the energy from carbohydrate, alcohol and preferential metabolism of fatty acids, consequently the VLCFA are mostly stored in the body as fat. Thus the consumption of food stuffs with large quantity of VLCFA will provoke obesity.

  1. GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FATTY ACIDS OF EDIBLE OILS

An excel table of edible oils and fatty acids is elaborated as shown in Pic 11, from: Ian Blair & Cassandra Bond; Pantzaris T P and Mohd Jaaffar Ahmad, Charlie Scrimgeour, Wikipedia, R.O. Osman et al, Alessandra Piras et al. Graphs are made in order to appreciate and understand the composition of some common edible oils in fatty acids with emphasis on the saturation and carbon chain length of the fatty acids.

Pic 12: Graph of Composition of Coconut oil, palm kernel, cotton seed oil, olive oil, peanut oil, and soya bean oil in fatty acids. Pic 12 shows that each edible oil consists of several fatty acids.

a. Pic 13: Graph of Composition of butter fat cow, cocoa butter, cod-liver oil, corn oil, flaxseed oil, lard (pork fat) and sunflower oil in fatty acids. Pic 13 shows that each edible oil consists of several fatty acids.

b. Pic 14: Graph of Composition in saturated fatty acids of Coconut oil, palm kernel, cotton seed oil, olive oil, peanut oil, and soya bean oil. Pic 14 shows that these edible oils contain some degree of saturation. Each edible oil contain some quantity of saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and ploy unsaturated fatty acids.

c. Pic 15: Graph of Composition in saturated fatty acids of butter fat cow, cocoa butter, cod-liver oil, corn oil, flaxseed oil, lard (pork fat) and sunflower oil in saturated fatty acids. Pic 15 shows that these edible oils contain some degree of saturation. Each edible oil contain some quantity of saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and ploy unsaturated fatty acids. This analysis shows that an oil or fat is neither saturated nor unsaturated as it is falsely widely and globally acknowledged.

d. Pic 16: Graph of Composition according to the length of the carbon chain of fatty acids of Coconut oil, palm kernel oil, cotton seed oil, olive oil, peanut oil, and soya bean oil. All the oils have some quantity of very long fatty acids; the smallest quantity being in coconut oil and palm kernel oil 2g/100g, and the largest quantity in soya bean oil 61g/100g.

e. Pic 17: Graph of Composition according to the length of the carbon chain of fatty acids of butter fat cow, cocoa butter, corn oil, flaxseed oil, lard (pork fat) and sunflower oil. The very long chain fatty acids are found in various degrees in all the edible oils. The smallest quantity, 3g/100g, is in butter cow fat and cocoa butter and the largest quantity, 69g/100g, in flaxseed oil and sunflower oil. The very long chain fatty acids play a very important role in producing obesity because of its very slow and difficult metabolism in the body. The very long chain fatty acids are the last to be metabolized in the body, but since the body is always provided with regular meals of carbohydrates and alcohol, these very long chain fatty acids are stored in the body as fats thus promoting obesity.

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF OILS ACCORDING TO SOURCES AND LENGTH OF THEIR FATTY ACIDS

The graphical analysis of classification of edible oils by sources and their composition in fatty acids according to SCFA, MCFA, LCFA AND VLCFA was done from data synthesized from Ian Blair & Cassandra Bond; Pantzaris T P and Mohd Jaaffar Ahmad, Charlie Scrimgeour, Wikipedia, R.O. Osman et al, and Alessandra Piras et al).

a) Pic 18: Palm tree oils: coconut oil, palm oil, palm olein, and palm kernel oil. Pic 18 shows that the very long fatty acids in palm tree oils is very small ≤11g/100g.

b) Pic 19: Animal fats: beef tallow, butter fat cow, butter fat got, and lard (pork fat). Pic 19 shows that the very long fatty acids in animal fats are very small ≤10g/100g.

c) Pic 20: Fruit Tree: cocoa butter, olive oil, and almond oil. Pic 20 shows that fruit tree oils - cocoa butter, olive oil, and almond oil contain small quantity of very long chain fatty acids ≤17g/100g and will thus not cause obesity.

d) Pic 21: Leguminous plants and flower seeds: peanut oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, soya bean oil, sunflower oil, cotton seed oil, walnut oil, grape seed oil, flaxseed oil, and canola oil. Leguminous plants and flower seeds produce oils with a large quantity of very long chain fatty acids ≥32g/100g. Since there is preferential metabolism of fatty acids in the body those with shorter carbon chain fatty acids being digested first, the metabolism of the very long chain fatty acids in the body is very slow and difficult and is the last in the digestion line they will thus be deposited in the body as fats and consequently they will promote obesity.

e) Pic 22: Grains: The grains are Corn oil (Maize), wheat, barley-giza C. C80, sorghum local 129. Pic 22 shows that the oils of grains - corn, wheat, barley, sorghum - contain a very high quantity of very long chain fatty acids ≥47.4g/100g that would cause obesity. These grains are highly consumed by humans and animals. The food chain contains a very large quantity of these very long chain fatty acids from these grains since they are largely consumed; fortunately the quantity of fatty oils in the grains are generally small and insignificant compared to their big quantity of the carbohydrate content Annex III (Pic 23)


6. DISCUSSION

A. REVIEW OF FOUR FORMS FATTY ACIDS: SCFA, MCFA, LCFA, VLCFA

Most of the fats and oils that you absorb from your diet come from either plant or animal sources; all are composed of LCFA (long chain fatty acids) and VLCFA (very long chain fatty acids).

The definition of very long chain fatty acid is vague, some authors define it as starting from C 20, others from C 22; all these definitions will exclude soya bean, and soya bean oil thus it will be considered only as LCFA whereas its digestion and entire metabolism is problematic in the body, soya bean promotes obesity in chickens. Considering the definition and table of edible oils and it’s composition in fatty acids in The Untold Truth About Virgin Coconut Oil by Ian Blair Hamilton & Cassandra Bond whereby Lineolic fatty acid is converted in the body into Omega 6 and Alpha Linolenic fatty into Omega 3, they are considered as being in the very long chain fatty acids from C18.2 and above. This will permit a better and correct analysis of all the edibles in terms of the metabolism of SCFA, MCFA, LCFA and VLCFA. Caproic fatty acid C6 is considered as short chain fatty acid (Ian Blair Hamilton & Cassandra Bond).

The shorter the carbon chain in fatty acid the easier and faster is the fatty acid metabolized in the body; the longer the carbon chain in fatty acid the more difficult it is for the fatty acid to be metabolized in the body. There is preferential metabolism of fatty acids in the consequently the very long chain fatty acids are stored in the body as fat thus causing obesity.

The fatty acids in fish oil, the omega-3 fatty acids and the omega-6 fatty acids, are very long chain fatty acids; they will undergo very slow and difficult metabolism in the body thus most of them will be stored in the body as fats thus promoting obesity.

The SCFA and MCFA increase metabolism and thus decrease overall body fat thus decreasing obesity. The SFCA and MCFA are broken down almost immediately by enzymes in the saliva and gastric juices so that pancreatic fat-digesting enzymes are not even essential.

The vast majority of the fats and oils you eat, whether they are saturated or unsaturated or come from an animal or a plant, are composed of long-chain triglycerides and very long-chain triglycerides.

Medium-chain fatty acids produce energy. Long chain fatty acids and especially very long chain fatty acids are distributed to cells to serve as a fuel for muscular contraction and general metabolism and deposited as fats, thus producing obesity.

The SCFA and MCFA promote weight loss. Ordinarily SCFA and MCFA are not stored to any significant degree as body fat.

B. REVIEW OF SOME OILS:

a) Coconut Oil

Coconut Oil is the only oil that promotes weight loss. It is the world’s only low calorie fat (Ian Blair Hamilton & Cassandra Bond). Coconut oil is unique because it is composed predominately of MCT. MCT are broken down almost immediately by enzymes in the saliva and gastric juices so that pancreatic fat-digesting enzymes are not even essential.

Medium chain fatty acids from coconut oil produces almost exclusively energy, whereas, long chain fatty acids and especially very long chain fatty acids found in all other dietary fats produce body fat.

Medium-chain saturated fatty acids in coconut oil are potent antimicrobial agents, effective against fungi, viruses and many bacteria. The most effective fatty acids are lauric acid, caprylic acid and capric acid. They appear to work by causing microbial cell walls to actually disintegrate

Recently published research says that natural coconut fat in the diet leads to a normalization of body lipids (fats) improves the immune system's anti-inflammatory response and protects against alcohol damage to the liver (Ian Blair Hamilton & Cassandra Bond).

Coconut oil is the most natural internal antifungal medication used for the treatment of fungal meningo-encephalitis in HIV/AIDS, Dr Mfonfu Daniel, www.mfonfudaniel.blogspot.com

From my research it has been observed that mfonfu oil (coconut oil) treats HIV2.

To reap the medium chain triglyceride benefits you simply need to change the type of oil you use to cook with to coconut oil. Coconut oil is unique because it is composed predominately of MCT. The size of the fatty acid is extremely important because physiological effects of medium-chain fatty acids in coconut oil are distinctly different from the long-chain fatty acids more commonly found in our diet. It's the MCT in coconut oil that make it different from all other fats and for the most part gives it its unique character and healing properties.

The coconut oil contain a short-chain fatty acid 0.4g/100g, total medium-chain fatty acids 61.9g/100g, total long chain fatty acids 36g/100g, and total very long chain fatty acids 2g/100g (Ian Blair Hamilton & Cassandra Bond).

b) Palm kernel oil

Palm kernel oil is used traditionally as rubbing oil for children in certain communities in Cameroon. Candida albicans grows in Palm kernel oil and consequently causes skin rashes and congenital umbilical hernia in children as shown in Pic 24. (Dr Mfonfu Daniel, www.mfonfudaniel.blogspot.com). Palm kernel is used to produce large bottles of cosmetic lotions (Pic 25) for babies and children; these lotions also cause Candida albicans skin rashes. Palm kernel oil is not recommended for rubbing oil because Candida albicans grows it and causes Candida skin rashes. Palm kernel is not also recommended for eating because it will cause fungal gastro-enteritis and fungal infection of other organs in the body. Palm kernel oil is not recommended for cosmetic oils. Palm kernel oil is only suitable and recommended for the manufacturing of soap.

c) Palm oil

Palm nut is the only natural fruit created by the Almighty God with the functions of various parts specified (Pic 26): mesocarp for red palm oil very rich in vitamin A. Palm oil is the loved by all creatures including man. The palm kernel is for the seed of the palm tree, but man has crushed it to produce palm kernel oil that is not loved by all creatures – pour some palm kernel oil on the soil, all insects will run away from it unlike the red palm oil.

d) Fish oil

Since fish oil is made of very long chain fatty acids whose metabolism is very slow and difficult, leading to the deposit of the very long chain fatty acids in the body as fats thus promoting obesity, it should not be used routinely as food supplement. Rather fish oil should be prescribed medically for specific deceases and for specifique duration or else it will promote obesity and consequently anahilate the good effects of the fish oil.

e) Soya bean

Soya bean contains soya bean oil that is made of made up of a large quantity of very long chain fatty acids, 61g/100g. Soya bean is highly consumed by humans, and animals through animal feeds. Soya bean is also used in aquaculture. The excessive and global consumption of soya bean and soya bean oil by humans and animals also promotes the obesity pandemic. Soya bean and soya bean oil should be used for the treatment of malnutrition for a limited duration. Soya bean should be used for manufacturing bio-fuels.

C. RECOMMENDED EDIBLE OIL

Following the graphical analysis carried in this study the composition of recommended edible oils is short chain fatty acids, medium chain fatty acids, long chain fatty acids, and very long chain fatty acids of <20g/100g. The edible oils recommended are: 1) Coconut oil, 2) Olive oil, 3) Palm oil, 4) Butter fat goat, 5) Butter fat cow, 6) Cocoa Butter, 7) Lard (Pork Fat), 8) Beef Tallow, 9) Palm olein (bleached palm oil), and 10) Almond oil. The very long chain fatty acids in these oils range from 2g/100g in coconut oil to 17g/100g in almond oil.

The Almighty God in creating the World gave each region of the world at least one of these recommended edible oils that do not promote obesity with insignificant quantity of the very long chain fatty acids or other suitable oil. It is left for to investigate the oils of our region to look our appropriate oil.

1) Coconut oil, the coconut tree is found in tropics in the coastal areas and in tropical Islands,

2) Olive oil, the olive plant is grown in the Mediterranean region;

3) Palm oil: the palm tree is grown in the tropics. Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient in the tropical belt of Africa, Southeast Asia and parts of Brazil. Its increasing use in the commercial food industry in other parts of the world is buoyed by its lower cost and the high oxidative stability (saturation) of the refined product when used for frying (Wikipedia - Palm oil).

4) Butter fat goat, Goat is reared world wide;

5) Butter fat cow, Cow is reared world wide;

6) Cocoa Butter, Cocoa tree is grown in the tropics. The production of edible oil from cocoa will greatly enhance the economic potentials of the cocoa fruit;

7) Lard (Pork Fat), Pork is reared worldwide. Caution should be exercised in the use of animal fats in cosmetics as these fats may produce allergy;

8) Beef Tallow, It is produced world wide;

9) Palm olein, red palm oil is fractionated into palm olein, for cooking oil;

10) Almond oil, the almond is a species of tree native to the Middle East and South Asia. The almond is a native to the Mediterranean climate region of the Middle East, eastward as far as the India. It was spread by humans in ancient times along the shores of the Mediterranean into Northern Africa and southern Europe and more recently transported to other parts of the world, notably California, United States. (Wikipedia Almond).

D. RECOMMENDED EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS

The recommended edible vegetable oils are: 1) Coconut oil, 2) Olive oil, 3) Palm oil, 4) Cocoa Butter, 5) Palm olein (bleached palm oil), and 6) Almond oil. (Pic 28)

Within context of the prevention and control of the obesity pandemic each region of the world should identify the recommended edible vegetable oil in its region rather than just routinely eating soya bean oil that contributes the pandemic obesity.

E. GRAPHICAL PRESENTATION OF COCONUT OIL AND SOYA BEAN OIL : THEIR COMPOSITION IN SCFA, MCFA, LCFA, AND VLCFA

The reason lipids are characterized based length of their carbon backbone is because the size of the carbon chain affects the chemical and physical properties of the oil (Rhotini Henderson).

Coconut Oil is the only oil that promotes weight loss (Ian Blair Hamilton & Cassandra Bond).

Soya bean causes obesity in chicken and it is a potential contributor to the obesity pandemic, as depicted in the hypothesis of this analysis.

Pic 29 and Pic 30 present graphically the composition of coconut oil, the weight loser, and soya bean oil, the weight promoter, in SCFA, MCFA, LCFA, and VLCFA. Coconut oil contains 0.4g/100g of SCFA and 61.6g/100g of MCFA while soya bean oil has none of them. Coconut oil has 36g/100g of LCFA while soya bean oil has 39g/100g of LCFA. Statistically there would be no difference between coconut oil and soya bean oil as far as the LCFA is concerned. The rapid metabolism of coconut oil is carried out in the body with the 36g/100g of LCFA. All the best qualities of coconut oil cited in literatures are performed with the 36g/100g of LCFA. In the metabolism of coconut oil in the boy it is used for energy only, there is no storage of fats in the body, one may infer that the body rapidly metabolise some LCFA in oils containing a large quantity of SCFA and MCFA. There significant difference between coconut oil and soya bean oil as far as the goal of this study is concerned lies in the VLCFA as defined in this study. Coconut oil contains 2g/100g while soya bean oil has 61g/100g. The majority of this VLCFA in soya bean when eaten will be stored as fats in the body because of the discriminatory and preferential metabolism of fats according to their carbon chain length, as we eat about three balance meals a day.

Soya bean and soya bean oil are heavily consumed globally by most of us consequently we will have large quantity of fat deposit of VLCFA in our bodies, thus provoking the obesity pandemic.

F. GRAPHICAL PRESENTATION OF SOME EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS: THEIR COMPOSITION IN SATURATION AND LENGTH OF CARBON CHAIN.

Saturation and length of carbon chain of fatty acids should always be considered together in describing fatty acids because the metabolism of fatty acids in the body depends on the length of the carbon chain of the fatty acid rather than the saturation. The shorter the carbon chain the easier and faster is the metabolism of the fatty acid in the body. Pic 31 shows the saturation and carbon chain length of fatty acids in coconut oil and Pic 32 shows the saturation and carbon chain length of fatty acids in soya bean oil. The poly unsaturated acid and the VLCFA for coconut is 2% while that of soya bean is 61%, thus soya bean is an obesity promoter.The VLCFA will be stored in body as body fats and hence promote obesity.

Similar graphs can be made for all edible vegetable oils showing the saturation level and the carbon chain length of the fatty acids as Annex IV (Pic 33, Pic35, Pic36, Pic 37, and Pic 38). It should be remembered that the metabolism of the fatty acids is discriminatory and preferential according to the carbon chain length of the fatty acids and not the saturation level.

The junk food that will contribute to obesity will contain a large quantity of soya bean and soya bean oil, and other soya bean products. The junk food consists of items with a large quantity of the very long chain fatty acids as revealed by this study.


7. CONCLUSION

The Biblical epidemiologist, Daniel, had prophesied on obesity giving us a simple formula for feeding in order to prevent obesity; it is just left for us to implement this prophecy.

The inspiration to carry out this research came from the Almighty God through my experience in the obesity I observed in chickens as they ate soya bean in my home poultry.

The soya bean is composed mostly of soya bean oil made up fatty acids of the LCFA 39g/100g, and the VLCFA 61g/100g.

The SCFA and MCFA digest immediately to produce energy and stimulate metabolism.

There is differential and preferential metabolism between the long chain fatty acid and the very long chain fatty acids, with the long chain fatty acid being metabolised first and the very long chain fatty acids being stored in the body as fats, thus promoting obesity.

Soya bean contains a large quantity of the very long chain fatty acids 61g/100g. Soya bean is heavily consumed world wide by humans and animal consequently the food chain contains a large quantity of the very long chain of fatty acids thus contributing to the obesity pandemic. Soya bean and soya bean oil should be used for the treatment of malnutrition for a limited duration. Soya bean should be used for the manufacturing of bio-fuels.

The recommended edible vegetable oils are: 1) Coconut oil, 2) Olive oil, 3) Palm oil,

4) Cocoa Butter, 5) Palm olein (bleached red palm oil) and 6) Almond oil. They are the best oils for cooking and for the cosmetic industries. Coconut oil with so many medicinal properties should be consumed on medical prescription since it enhances weight loss and increases body metabolism.

The cause of obesity should also include the type of food and oil eaten and their metabolism in the body instead of considering only the amount of calories consumed. Thus the cause of obesity should be defined as increased consumption of food items containing large quantities of very long chain fatty acids as defined in this study such as all soya bean products and others. All other methods of prevention of obesity should be rationally considered.

The treatment of obesity should be the consumption of coconut oil about one tablespoonful morning and evening for a year and the consumption of a small quantity of one of the recommended edible vegetable oils.

‘He agreed to let them try it for ten days. When the time was up, they looked healthier and stronger than all those who had been eating the royal food. So from then on the guard let them continue to eat vegetables instead of what the king provided’ (Book of Daniel 9. 14 – 16, Good News Bible)

To prevent the contribution of the largely consumed soya bean and soya bean oil to the obesity pandemic we should stop eating soya bean, soya bean oil and other soya bean products. Let us try this for one year, then humanity will be very healthy; most generic consequences of obesity will disappear from our body. The heavy burden of obesity in our health system will greatly reduce.

This study will go a long way solve the problem of poverty world wide as new generation of oils will be made in various regions of the world.

This study was conceived, executed and financed by me, Dr Daniel Mfonfu, for the love of humanity, in name of Jesus! May all those who read this article be inspired by the Holy Ghost take as a very serious contribution to the fight against the obesity pandemic!

I pray that this analysis and conclusions from this study would be taught in schools of medicine and nursing schools.

This research was initiated in December 2011 following the out cry of humanity on obesity. I finished it May 2012. I give special thanks to Mfonfu Daniel Buma for ‘Daddy go and work computer’ and to Mfonfu Kevin Youbi Babila for his computer advice and help.


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